How does Shakespeare present Macbeth’s deteriorating state of mind?


She should have died hereafter;
There would have been a time for such a word.
To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
To the last syllable of recorded time,
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

Shakespeare is explaining that Macbeth is realizing that everything he did was useless because he had to kill his best friend to become king, and also he had Macbeth pushing him in a way that she though was right. But now lady Macbeth is dead he thinks there is nothing to live for because also outside “his” castle there is ten thousand men disguised as Birham wood led by Malcolm and Macduff.”Creeps in this petty pace from day to day” Here Shakespeare  meant there is a predator  after Macbeth that comes day after day with a petty pace, and also he made a personification of time being a predator coming after Macbeth . Also Shakespeare removes the iambic pentameter from Macbeth’s speech which describes his state of mind. Previously Shakespeare  also let the reader (us) know  in some form of way that Macbeth’s mind was already deteriorating, e.g. when  Macbeth  sow a dagger appear in front of him with blood on it indicating that he had to kill his best friend for power. Also when he killed his best friend and he was still in the room and knocks where heard at the door and he though he wished that does knocks would wake him up. Shakespeare is trying to  make the reader (us) to imagine using figurative language how Macbeth mind is right now, he doesn’t feel in place without Lady Macbeth, he thinks that living makes no sense now and he is thinking about everything he did just to become king.



Macbeth: Is this a Dagger?

A metaphor used in Mecbeth’s Act 2 Scene 1 is “a dagger of the mind is a false creation from his mind. This gives us an idea of what Macbeth is thinking and of what he is going to be doing. He know himself that he will be killing Duncan but he doesn’t know how,when or where. We can see that Meecbeth even being a noble person doesn’t want want to kill Duncan and he feels disgusted by that idea.Shakespeare compares the actual dagger to the pain of the dagger to the mind meaning the thought of a dagger of worse than actually weilding the dagger.

Macbeth’s Deep and Dark Desires

Macbeth is a power hungry person .( That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o’erleap,For in my way it lies) here he Macbeth talking “describing” how he wants to kill the king. But when he says “stars hide your fires let not light see my black and deep desires” he indicates the stars as referring  to God. “My black deep desires” means that he doesn’t want anyone to know what he is planning .(The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be, which the eye fears, when it is done, to see) He is ashamed and can’t make himself belief what he will be doing.

Differing views of Macbeth and Banquo

Macbeths views are  that he is interested and wants to know more “would they had stayed”. Once he  learned that he is actually the Thane of Cawdor, his interest turns to  belief that this may well be true and that he will be king, this makes him  question whether he will have to think something involving “killing the king” to take the throne or as he became the thane of Cawdor maybe this is something that will just happen “if chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, without my stir”. Banquo has the view that this is not something that is important or that should be believed and it is not true what they are hearing, but rather it is the devil “witches”  seeking to influence them “the instruments of darkness tell us truths, win us with honest trifles, the betray us in deepest consequence”. 

Macbeth writing

With this phrase, Shakespeare makes a relation between the battle of Macdowald and King Duncan’s men, to a pair of struggling swimmers. What he is trying to do is to put the image of battle into the crowds mind. However he used the word ~cling~ to make the audience thing that the characters are miserable and desperate which has an irony to it because the two sides of  soldiers are battling against each other .

Descriptive writing

It was a cold night of winter, and it was very dark and rainy  it felt like a cinema but with rain in it but with no big screen, the cold felt like I was naked with no clothes on. The cars where moving fast like little children running around their noises were pleasant and unpleasant at times. I could see tons of people moving around like little dots controlled by a puppet master. I was observing how people were behaving, some people were happy and some normal , it felt like they were trying to transmit their emotions to me. All the shops on the line the odor of the foods that where impressed in my mind gave me a feeling of tastyness that made me fell like i was tasting them without eating them. It looked like it was a big event with all the shops and all the people around but that day was  christmas eve , and i really felt deep in my heart that it was becoming warmer. I didn’t need eyes or ears to see or watch from the smell of the air that was giving good vibes and good smells that made you fell like you were really in a good enviroment.




summary chapter 19

Pip’s outlook is brighter the next morning, though he fears his prospects will change before the week is over. Joe and Biddy only refer to his leaving when he mentions it. Pip feels liberated when Joe burns his indentures. He feels superior to everyone and pities the drudgery of their lives that only death will relieve them from. He thinks of his association with the convict in the past and avoids the shame of it by remembering it was a long time ago, and the convict was probably dead by now.He wonders if Miss Havisham is grooming him for Estella. He falls asleep out in the marshes. When he awakes, he finds Joe smoking his pipe besides him. Pip assures Joe he won’t forget him. He is rather annoyed by Joe’s lack of emotion. He tells Joe he always wanted to be a gentleman. He expresses regret that Joe hadn’t made much progress in his lessons. Joe admits he is dull and only good at his trade.Pip wants to help Joe once he is in control of his property. He is sorry, though, that Joe wouldn’t have the proper manners for his rise in station. He asks Biddy’s help in improving Joe’s manners. Biddy tells Pip that Joe is proud, and he would not be willing to be taken out of a station where he knows he is well suited. Pip accuses her of being envious. Biddy promises to fulfill her present duties and to keep a good opinion of Pip irregardless of how he feels about her. However, she tells him he shouldn’t be so unjust, particularly when he becomes a gentleman. Pip is upset, and his spirits remained dampened for the rest of the day.The next day, Pip is once again in good spirits and reconciles with Biddy. He goes to the tailor. Pip tells Mr. Trabb that he has come into property and needs new clothes befitting his new circumstances. Mr. Trabb’s attitude changes with this news, and he becomes deferential to Pip. He asks Pip to refer people to him. Pip goes to the other tradesmen to get what he needs, and their attitudes change as abruptly as the tailor’s had.Mr. Pumblechook has been looking for him after hearing the news. He is pleased that he is probably responsible for it happening by introducing Pip to Miss Havisham. Pip warns him they aren’t to mention that. They dine and drink. Pumblechook gets drunk.Pumblechook reminisces about them being closer than they were in Pip’s childhood, but Pip’s attitude towards him has thawed. Pumblechook is pleased that Pip wants his clothes sent to him, and he is glad Pip doesn’t want to show them off to other people—for it makes the privilege greater.

Summary chapter 31-32-33-34-35-36-37-38

Summary: Chapter 31

Pip and Herbert go to the theater, where Wopsle plays a ridiculous Hamlet. Pip takes the hapless actor out to dinner following the play, but his mood remains sour.

Summary: Chapter 32

Pip receives a note from Estella, ordering him to meet her at a London train station. He arrives very early and encounters Wemmick, who takes him on a brief tour of the miserable grounds of Newgate Prison. Pip feels uncomfortable in the dismal surroundings, but Wemmick is oddly at home, even introducing Pip to a man who has been sentenced to death by hanging.

Summary: Chapter 33

When Pip meets Estella, he is again troubled by her resemblance to someone he can’t place. She treats Pip arrogantly, but sends him into ecstatic joy when she refers to their “instructions,” which makes him feel as though they are destined to be married. After he escorts her through the gaslit London night to the house at which she is staying, he returns to the Pockets’ home.

Summary: Chapter 34

Pip feels terribly guilty for his snobbish treatment of Joe and Biddy, and he feels as though his degenerate lifestyle has been a bad influence on Herbert. The two young men catalog their debts, but they are interrupted by a letter carrying the news that Mrs. Joe has died.

Summary: Chapter 35

Pip is surprised by the intensity of his sadness about his sister’s death. He returns home at once for the funeral. He meets Pumblechook, who continues to fawn over him irritatingly. He tries to mend his relations with Joe and Biddy; Biddy is skeptical of his pledges to visit more often. Pip says goodbye to them the next morning, truly intending to visit more often, and walks away into the mist.

Summary: Chapter 36

Pip’s twenty-first birthday finally arrives, meaning that he is an adult and will begin to receive a regular income from his fortune rather than having to go to Jaggers to access his money. He feels a great sense of excitement, because he hopes that his entrance into adulthood will cause Jaggers to tell him the identity of his mysterious benefactor. Despite Herbert’s warning, he feels increasingly certain that it is Miss Havisham and that she means for him to marry Estella. But during their interview, Jaggers is cold and brief; he reveals nothing about the source of Pip’s fortune, simply telling him that his income will be five hundred pounds a year and refusing to take responsibility for the outcome. For some reason, the encounter reminds Pip of his meeting with the convict in the graveyard so many years before. Still, Pip invites Jaggers to participate in his birthday dinner, but Jaggers’s oppressive presence makes the evening less enjoyable for Pip and Herbert.

Summary: Chapter 37

Upon receiving his income, Pip decides to help Herbert by buying Herbert’s way into the merchant business. He asks Wemmick for advice. At Jaggers’s office (in Chapter 36), Wemmick cynically advises Pip not to help Herbert, but later, at the Castle (where Pip also meets Wemmick’s girlfriend, Miss Skiffins), he jovially offers exactly the opposite advice and agrees to help Pip with the scheme. They find a merchant in need of a young partner, and Pip buys Herbert the partnership. Everything is all arranged anonymously, so that Herbert, like Pip, does not know the identity of his benefactor.

Summary: Chapter 38

Pip spends a great deal of time with Estella in the house of her London hostess, Mrs. Brandley. However, he is not treated as a serious suitor. Rather, he is allowed to accompany Estella everywhere she goes, watching her treat her other suitors cruelly but being more or less ignored himself. He cannot understand why Miss Havisham does not announce the details of their engagement, in which he continues to believe. Pip and Estella go to visit the old woman, and Pip observes for the first time a combative relationship between her and Estella: Miss Havisham goads Estella on to break men’s hearts, but Estella treats Miss Havisham as coldly as she treats her suitors. Shortly thereafter, Pip learns to his horror that Drummle is courting Estella. He confronts Estella about the news, but she refuses to take his concern seriously, reminding Pip that he is the only suitor she doesn’t try to deceive and entrap. But this only makes Pip feel less important to her. That night, the young man imagines his fate as a heavy stone slab hanging over his head, about to fall.

Summary chapters 27-28-29-30

Summary: Chapter 27

Joe comes to visit Pip in London. Because Pip worries that Joe will disapprove of his opulent lifestyle and that Drummle will look down on him because of Joe, Joe’s visit is strained and awkward. He tries to tell Pip the news from home: Wopsle, for instance, has become an actor. But Pip acts annoyed with him until Joe mentions that Estella has returned to Satis House and that she wishes to see Pip. Pip suddenly feels more kindly toward Joe, but the blacksmith leaves before Pip can improve his behavior.

Summary: Chapter 28

Hoping to see Estella and to apologize to Joe, Pip travels home, forced to share a coach with a pair of convicts, one of whom is the mysterious stranger who gave Pip money in the pub. Though this man does not recognize Pip, Pip overhears him explaining that the convict Pip helped that long-ago night in the marshes had asked him to deliver the money to Pip. Pip is so terrified by his memory of that night that he gets off the coach at its first stop within the town limits. When he arrives at his hotel, he reads a notice in a newspaper, from which he learns that Pumblechook is taking credit for his rise in status.

Summary: Chapter 29

When Pip travels to Satis House the next day, Pip pictures himself as a triumphant knight riding to rescue the Lady Estella from an evil castle. He encounters Orlick, now Miss Havisham’s porter, at the gate. When he sees Estella, he is stunned: she has become a ravishing young woman. Despite his newfound fortune, Pip feels horribly inadequate around her, as unworthy and clumsy as ever. Miss Havisham goads him on, snapping at him to continue to love Estella. Pip walks with Estella in the garden, but she treats him with indifference, and he becomes upset. Pip realizes that she reminds him of someone, but he can’t place the resemblance. Back inside, he discovers Jaggers there and feels oppressed by the lawyer’s heavy presence.


Summary of EU Argoments

Why do they want the UK to leave?

They believe Britain is being held back by the EU, which they say imposes too many rules on business and charges billions of pounds a year in membership fees for little in return. They also want Britain to take back full control of its borders and reduce the number of people coming here to work. One of the main principles of EU membership is “free movement”, which means you don’t need to get a visa to go and live in another EU country. They also object to the idea of “ever closer union” and what they see as moves towards the creation of a “United States of Europe”.

Why do they want the UK to stay?

Those campaigning for Britain to stay in the EU say it gets a big boost from membership – it makes selling things to other EU countries easier and, they argue, the flow of immigrants, most of whom are young and keen to work, fuels economic growth and helps pay for public services. They also believe Britain’s status in the world would be damaged by leaving and that we are more secure as part of the 28 nation club, rather than going it alone.


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